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The Calicioid Lichens and Fungi of northern New England and Maritime Canada

The fungal order Caliciales is described by Tibell (1984) as an extremely heterogeneous assemblage of saprophytic, parasitic and lichenized fungi that have in part independently achieved a passive spore dispersal. Most species can be distinguished by their tiny (1-2 mm tall) stipitate apothecia and by the fact that their spores, fragments of asci and paraphyses break down into a powdery mass, the so-called mazaedium. Assigned to twenty-six genera in eight families, the group is widely distributed in both hemisphers where they colonize a variety of substrates including the bark and lignum of numerous angiosperm and gymnosperm species as well as bryophytes and rock. Most species show clear substrate preferences and a few have a rather narrow choice of substrates. They often select niches with low light intensity and a continuously high humidity--microhabitat requirements that make the group a natural unit of investigation.

The majority of Caliciales collected in the Northeast, to date, have been crustose species, with only two fruticose species, Sphaerophorus fragilis and Sphaerophorus globosus, and no foliose species, reported. The stipitate apothecia of most crustose species consist of an enlarged spore-bearing capitulum that rises above its thallus, or the substrate, on a narrow stalk. Only the apothecia of species in the genus Cyphelium are truly sessile, the remainder of the species under study bearing extremely short-stalked (subsessile) or variably short-, medium-, and long-stalked apothecia. While certain species might, on average, be considered short-, medium-, or long-stalked, the ranges of variation are such that descriptions of this sort are rarely useful.

The stalk tapers or flares upward into the excipulum which, in most species, sits cup-like at the base of the capitulum. The excipulum encloses more of the capitulum in only a few species and is eroding to evanescent in just a few others. The morphology of the capitulum--particularly the excipulum--together with the stalk, combine to provide apothecia of the Caliciales with a myriad of shapes. As many of these different shapes can often be found among the apothecia of a given species, adjectives such as "cupshaped, obconical, turbinate," and "spherical" serve only as means around which these shapes fluctuate.

The excipulum surrounds the hypothecium and the hymenium, the latter being transformed into a spore mass that often rises above its rim. The morphology of the spore mass itself is dependent upon the nature of the spore dispersal mechanism which results in the presence or absence of a mazaedium.

A mazaedium is best recognized in a wet mount by the much higher proportion of mature spores found outside of rather than within asci. The asci actually begin disintegrating early in the maturation of the apothecium and in later stages of development are difficult to find. It is only during the earliest stages of apothecial development--when the apothecia are at their smallest--that the structure of the asci is best studied. In species that lack a mazaedium, a higher proportion of mature spores is found within than outside of asci, even during the later stages of apothecial development. Spore dispersal is active and the asci do not disintegrate. Under these conditions, the structure of the asci can be studied even into the later stages.

While most Caliciales species have their spores uniseriately arranged in cylindrical asci, other types of spore arrangement exist and can be diagnostic. Structure of the asci and morphology and arrangement of spores provide some of the most consistent and reliable genera- and species-specific characteristics within the order.

The vegetative thallus of crustose Caliciales is either covering the surface of the substrate (episubstratic) or is growing within it (endosubstratic). While the majority of the saprophytic Caliciales impart a white stain--sometimes even a flakiness--to the surface of the substrate, other saprophytes effect no perceptible changes. Thalli of lichenized Caliciales, on the other hand, display a diversity of morphologies. While the texture and development of the thallus in lichenized species can be quite variable, even among different specimens of the same species, color of the thallus and identify of the photobiont are diagnostic. For example, the thallus of Chaenotheca trichialis, whether squamulose, verrucose, granular, or no more than a stain in the substrate, is always gray-green and is always associated with the alga Stichococcus.

Because the photobiont is a diagnostic feature for many species in the Caliciales, attention must be paid to the algae associated with the thallus. Being able to identify algal species as "chlorococcoid", Stichococcus, or Trentepohlia, is usually sufficient to enable one to work through most keys. Chlorococcoid algae, like Trebouxia, are unicellular and have spherical cells. Because of a "massive axial chloroplast that extends nearly to the cell wall" (Smith 1950), the cells appear more homogeneously green than do the cells of Stichococcus. The cells of Stichococcus have a distinctive darker green parietal chloroplast that encircles less than half of the cell (Smith 1950) and which contrasts with the lighter green protoplast of the rest of the cell. Also, the cells of Stichococcus are typically bacilliform to cylindrical and have rounded ends. They may be united into short filaments but, because of a tendency to break apart, are often unicellular. The cells of Trentepohlia are spherical to oval and are united into filaments. Despite a tendency to break apart in lichenization, a careful examination will usually turn up some intact short filaments. The cells are distinguished, in many specimens, by the presence of orange betacarotene droplets. Occasionally, when these droplets are so dense as to color the entire protoplast orange, they can be confused with similarly-colored bark cells.

Where the thallus is not particularly well developed or is endosubstratic, deciding which, if any, of the algae growing among the apothecia is the photobiont can be difficult. In species with an endosubstratic thallus, such as Chaenotheca brunneola, the chlorococcoid photobiont is immersed in the substrate but Stichococcus may cover the surface. Likewise, in species such a Mycocalicium subtile and Phaeocalicium polyporaeum that have nonlichenized, endosubstratic thalli, the surface of the substrate may be covered with a chlorococcoid alga or Trentepohlia. Because of inherent difficulties in deciding which, if any, of the associated algae may be the photobiont, its identify is best left until after a thorough investigation of the associated apothecia. There may then be a clearer suggestion as to which of the associated algae is indeed the photobiont.

Commonly called the "stubble lichens" because of their small size, species in the Order Caliciales are frequently overlooked, hence underreported: Of the 35 species reported for Maine north of Mount Katahdin, for example, all but four of the 12 species previously reported for the entire state (Table 1) were recorded, with 23 representing new state records and one being a new record for the northern hemisphere (Selva 1988b). Many of these species had also not previously been reported for New England or northeastern North America and much of the information on substrate ecology had never been recorded. Since the publication of my 1988 manuscript, I have discovered an additional eight species in northern Maine--bringing the number of species for this part of the state to 43 and the state total to 45 (Table 2); recorded 25 new records for New Hampshire (Table 3) and 17 new records for Vermont (Table 4) (Selva 1993, 1994b, 1995); recorded 21 new records for New Brunswick (Table 5); (Selva 1990), and have also contributed several new Caliciales records for southern Maine (Harris et al 1988) and Ontario (Wong and Brodo 1990). During the summer of 1995, preliminary work was done at four old-forest sites in Nova Scotia, recognized by Mr. Art Lynds of the Parks and Recreation Division of the Nova Scotia Department of Natural Resources as some of the most significant in the province. Results include the discovery of Chaenotheca servitii at Abraham Lake and Sclerophora coniophaea at North Aspy Fault. These species are new records for North America and eastern North America, respectively, with Chaenotheca servitii collected for the first time outside the type locality in Slovakia.

The Caliciales has received little attention throughout North America, save Weber's (1967) synopsis of Cyphelium, Tibell's (1975) treatment of the order in Boreal North America, and my own survey of the group in northern New England and western New Brunswick. The paper by Tibell (1975), despite its title, provided only scant records for New England and the Maritime Provinces, citing only three species for Maine and none for New Brunswick, for example.

The suggestion that lichens in the Order Caliciales might play a role in assessing the continuity of forest ecosystems grew out of an investigation of old-growth forests in northern Maine (Selva 1986, 1988a, 1989).

Since the summer of 1986, I have been engaged in a research project in which lichens are being used to assess the continuity of northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests in northern New England and western New Brunswick. Patterned after a study by Francis Rose (1974, 1976) in Britain, the continuity of 33 northern hardwoods and spruce-fir stands in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and at Mount Carleton Provincial Park in western New Brunswick have been assessed using indices of ecological continuity that are based upon the percentage occurrence of ancient forest indicator lichen species found at each site (Selva 1994a, 1996). The data show that, not only do epiphytic lichen floras become richer over time--with older stands harboring more rare species, but that the total number and presence of particular Caliciales species collected at a site may, in itself, be an indicator of continuity.

According to Tibell (1980), "Chaenotheca and other Caliciales species seem very sensitive to changes in forest climate, and most species indeed seem to depend on the occurrence of mature forests containing trees of different ages and a varied light and humidity regime". Like Tibell, who noted that, because of clearcutting, "the majority of Chaenotheca and other Caliciales species have already been exterminated over vast areas of Scandinavia and are now found only in forest reserves and national parks", I, too, have recorded similar declines in northern New England where many of the rarer Caliciales are restricted to old-growth and ancient forest sites (e.g., Selva 1988b, 1994a, 1996). Interestingly, of the 20 lichen index species selected by Tibell (1992) for an Indicator Species Index of Forest Continuity designed for the boreal forests from southern Sweden to Lapland, 10 belong to the Caliciales.

While the aging old-growth forest is a dynamic place offering a wide variety of ever-changing microhabitats, a reliable typological concept of Caliciales communities is not developed easily. It includes, in large part, the so-called Calicietum hyperelli association of the Calicion hyperelli alliance discussed by Barkman (1958), James, Hawksworth and Rose (1977), and Rose and Wolseley (1984) and described by them as a species diverse association, rich in the Caliciaceae, found on dry sides of ancient trees and on decorticated wood in humid situations with plenty of diffuse light but without direct sunlight.

In my investigations of the association, to date, in Maine, New Brunswick, New Hampshire and Vermont, recognizable patterns of distribution have become apparent. Because of the even supply of wood in various stages of decay that characterize natural forests in late successional stages, the species diversity of Caliciales on decorticated surfaces increases with stand age and decomposition of the substrate. Further, the Mycocaliciaceae-rich flora of younger, less decomposed lignum diversifies to a Caliciaceae-rich flora over time.

Certain species typically found on lignum (e.g., Calicium salicinum, Mycocalicium subtile, and Chaenotheca trichialis) are more frequently also found on bark in aging forests. This may be due in large part to the acidification of bark that occurs during stand succession (Barkman 1958). Also borne out in these investigations is the contention by Hyvarinen et. al. (1992) that the tolerance of many of the Caliciaceae to acidity "may be a decisive factor in competition with macrolichens for space." This would help explain the near exclusion of all but the Caliciales on the trunks of many of the oldlest trees at many of these old-growth sites.

While preliminary results show that the Calicietum hyperelli may be found on all sides of older trees, it is more likely to be encountered near the base of the trunk on the dry side of hardwoods and Thuja occidentalis --typically the side opposite the more conspicuous lichen vegetation, and near breast height, rarely lower, on most conifers. Except for the presence of Sphinctrina species, neither the upper trunk nor the branches of hardwoods or conifers support much of a Caliciales flora.

One of the least investigated of the Caliciales microhabitats is that of smooth bark. Two species of Stenocybe are noteworthy here, both restricted to the smooth bark of saplings or the branches of older trees in old-growth hardwood stands.

Until recently, Stenocybe minutissimum was known only from the summit of Mt. Battie in Camden, Knox County, Maine, growing on the smooth bark of young oaks. Described as a new species, Calicium minutissimum, by G. K. Merrill in 1909 (Merrill 1909), it was transferred to the genus Stenocybe by Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), then apparently forgotten. It was only after I sent a copy of the original publication to Robert Egan that it was added to the checklist of lichens of the United States and Canada (Egan 1990). I had the opportunity to visit the type locality where it was found to be doing very well, just as Merrill described it, and even managed to locate what's left of the type specimen--filed under the name Stenocybe byssaceum --at the Farlow Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany: I plan to select a neotype in the near future. During the summer of 1990, I found Stenocybe minutissimum growing on red oak in northern Maine and have since collected it at two other northern Maine locales, in New Hampshire at Mountain Pond Research Natural Area, in Vermont at Kingsland Bay State Park, and in New Brunswick near Canaan Forks. To date, it has been found only on red oak seedlings and saplings and on trunks and branches of larger trees where the bark is still smooth.

The other Stenocybe species restricted to a smooth bark microhabitat in old-growth hardwood forests is tentatively being called Stenocybe tremulicola sensu latu. Tentatively, because the spores are variably simple, 1-septate and 3-septate and the capitulum of the specimens I have found are distinctly laterally compressed (a la Phaeocalicium compressulum), a description I have not seen used for Stenocybe tremulicola. The have been found, to date, on saplings and the smooth bark of larger branches of Betula alleghaniensis and Betula papyrifera in Maine, New Brunswick, New Hampshire and Vermont.

Other microhabitats colonized by Caliciales include the roots of upturned trees, dry, decorticated standing hulks and stumps, "grottos" formed at the base of trees, exposed heartwood of living trees, and the surface of polypores and resin--including that formed around broken branch collars.

In 1989, I took my research eastward into the forests of New Brunswick's Mount Carleton Provincial Park. Using the indices of ecological continuity that I had formulated for the forests of northern Maine, results were obtained that mimicked the earlier study in showing increasing numbers of Caliciales species at sites with increasing index values (Selva 1990). Thirty-four Caliciales species were recorded here, compared with the 16 Caliciales species previously reported for the province by Gowan and Brodo (1988) and others (Table 6). With the addition of 21 new Caliciales records from Mount Carleton and elsewhere, the total for New Brunswick now stands at 37 (Table 5).

Only one of the Mount Carleton Caliciales species have yet to be reported for Maine, namely Chaenotheca brachypoda (=Coniocybe sulphurea). With few exceptions, the ecology of the others is similar to that reported by me for Maine (Selva 1988b). These include the restriction of Stenocybe pullatula to Alnus incana subsp. rugosa, Phaeocalicium populneum to Populus spp., and when found growing over the polypore Hirschioporus abietinus, Chaenotheca brunneola to Abies balsamea. Chaenothecopsis lignicola was, likewise, found almost exclusively on the thallus of Chaenotheca trichialis. The one exception was in finding it growing on the thallus of Chaenotheca gracillima which, like Chaenotheca trichialis, includes the alga Stichococcus.

In northern Maine, Sphinctrina turbinata has been found only over the thallus of Pertusaria macounii and P. consocians on angiosperms and gymnosperms, respectively. At Mount Carleton, it was also only found associated with these two Pertusaria species, but P. consocians was twice found growing on angiosperms: Once on Acer spicatum and once on Sorbus americana.

During the summer of 1992, I began an investigation of lichens in the old-growth forests and research natural areas of New Hampshire and Vermont (Selva 1993, 1994b, 1995).

Based in large part on the work of Edward Tuckerman, the lichen flora of the White Mountains of New Hampshire was quite well known even before the turn of the century. Caliciales species are recorded in several of his publications, one of which includes the following account of the "Tribe Calicieae":

Perhaps this may be called on many accounts the most puzzling group of lichens. There is certainly none upon which so much labor has been bestowed by eminent lichenists. In this country very few species have been ascertained, and these almost entirely the commonest and most obvious forms. It is not every eye that can see a Calicium, nor are they easily to be found, where the attention is distracted by numerous other objects. Tuckerman 1845

Twenty-four species of Caliciales have been previously reported in the lichen literature of New Hampshire by Tuckerman and others (Table 7). Of the 37 species recorded by me, 25 represent new state records and help raise the total for New Hampshire to 49 (Table 3). With few exceptions, the ecology of the New Hampshire Caliciales is similar to that reported by me for Maine (Selva 1988b). One major exception was in finding Sphinctrina turbinata growing for the first time on Pertusaria rubefacta. It had previously been found growing only over Pertusaria macounii and P. consocians.

Thirteen species of Caliciales have been previously reported in the lichen literature of Vermont (Table 8). Of the 24 species recorded by me, 17 represent new state records and help raise the total for Vermont to 30 (Table 4). With few exceptions, the ecology of the Vermont Caliciales is similar to that reported by me for Maine (Selva 1988b).

Other Caliciales species have been previously reported for "New England" or "the mountains of New England" without reference to specific states. These are listed in Table 9.

Literature Cited

Anonymous. 1906. Offerings. The Bryologist 9:30. (Offerings to chapter members, for postage, specimens collected by a variety of individuals, including Mr. G.K. Merrill's offering of Sphaeorophorus fragilis Pers. collected on Mt. Washington, Hew Hampshire).

Barkman, J. J. 1958. Photosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. Van Gorcum & Co., Assen.

Durfee, T. 1917. Lichens of the Mt. Monadnock region, N.H.--No. 9. The Bryologist 20:99.

Egan, R. S. 1990. Changes to the "Fifth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada". Edition II. The Bryologist 93:211-219.

Esslinger, T. L. and R. S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98:467-549.

Farlow, W. G. 1883. Notes on the cryptogamic flora of the White Mountains. Appalachia 3:232-251.

Fink, B. 1910. The lichens of Minnesota. Contr. from the National Herbarium 14:1-269.

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Frost, C. C. 1874. Catalogue of cryptogamous or flowerless plants of Vermont. Lichenes. Archives of Science 1:234-240;249-252.

Gowan, S. P. and I. M. Brodo. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. The Bryologist 91:255-325.

Harris, R. C., S. B. Selva, W. R. Buck, J. G. Guccion, J. Nelson, and C. Schmitt. 1988. Lichens of southern Maine collected on the 1987 Andrews Foray. Evansia 5:26-32.

Hyvarinen, M., P. Halonen, and M. Kauppi. 1992. Influence of stand age and structure on the epiphytic lichen vegetation in the middle-boreal forests of Finland. Lichenologist 24:165-180.

James, P. W., D. L. Hawksworth, and F. Rose. 1977. Lichen communities in the British Isles: A Preliminary conspectus. In Lichen Ecology, ed. by M. R. D. Seaward, pp. 295-413. Academic Press, New York.

Macoun, J. 1902. Catalogue of Canadian plants. Part VII. Lichenes and Hepaticae. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa.

Merrill, G. K. 1909a. Lichen notes no. 14. Three new forms of Calicium. The Bryologist 12:107-108.

Merrill, G. K. 1909b. Lichenes Exsiccati. The Bryologist 12:112. (Announcing the availability of Fascicle No. 1 of this publication, including Calicium curtisii var. splendidula Merrill, described by Merrill, from Maine, in the previous publication).

Peck, C. H. 1895. New species of fungi. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 22:485-493.

Riddle, L. W. 1909. Notes on some lichens from the Gaspe Peninsula. Rhodora 11:100-102.

Rose, F. 1974. The epiphytes of Oak, In the British oak: Its history and natural history, ed. by M. G. Morris and F. H. Perring, pp. 250-273. Classey, Faringdon.

Rose, F. 1976. Lichenological indicators of age and environmental continuity in woodlands, In Lichenology: Progress and problems, ed. by D. H. Brown, D. L. Hawksworth and R. H. Bailey, pp. 279-307. Academic Press, New York.

Rose, F. and P. Wolseley. 1984. Nettlecombe Park--Its history and its epiphytic lichens: An attempt at correlation. Field Studies 6:117-148.

Russell, J. L. 1851. Untitled address at the Dec. 11, 1851 evening meeting of the Essex Institute: "Mr. Russell offered some interesting remarks on the flora of the vicinity of Brattleborough, Vt., especially of the cryptogamic plants found by him on Mine Mountain". Proc. Essex Institute 1:15-16.

Santesson, R. 1984. The lichens of Sweden and Norway. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.

Schneider, A. 1898. A guide to the study of lichens. Bradlee Whidden, Boston.

Selva, S. B. 1986. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. A report prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine.

Selva, S. B. 1988a. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. The second of three annual reports prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine, the Appalachian Mountain Club, Gorham, New Hampshire, and the University of Maine at Fort Kent.

Selva, S. B. 1988b. The Caliciales of northern Maine. The Bryologist 91:2-17.

Selva, S. B. 1989. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. Final report prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine, the Appalachian Mountain Club, Gorham, New Hampshire, and the University of Maine at Fort Kent.

Selva, S. B. 1990. The Caliciales of Mount Carleton Provincial Park, New Brunswick. A report prepared for The New Brunswick Museum, Saint John.

Selva, S. B. 1993. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of Vermont and New Hampshire. A report prepared for the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1994a. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of northern New England and western New Brunswick. The Bryologist 97:424-429.

Selva, S. B. 1994b. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of Vermont and New Hampshire. A report prepared for the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1995. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of New Hampshire, Vermont, and the Adirondacks of New York. A report prepared for the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1996. Using lichens to assess eclogical continuity in northeastern forests, p. 35-48. In M. B. Davis (ed.), Eastern old-growth forests. Island Press, Washington, D. C.

Smith, G. M. 1950. The freshwater algae of the United States. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae botanicae upsalienses 21:1-128.

Tibell, L. 1980. The lichen genus Chaenotheca in the northern hemisphere. Symbolae botanicae upsaliensis 23:1-65.

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 79:597-713.

Tibell, L. 1987. Typification of names of infrageneric taxa described by Acharius and placed by him in Caliciales. Ann. Bot. Fennici 24:257-280.

Tibell, L. 1992. Crustose lichens as indicators of forest continuity in boreal coniferous forests. Nordic Journal of Botany 12:427-450.

Tuckerman, E. 1839. An enumeration of some lichens of New England, with remarks. Boston Journal of Natural History 2:245-262.

Tuckerman, E. 1840. A further enumeration of some New England lichenes. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 3:281-306.

Tuckerman, E. 1845. A further enumeration of some alpine and other lichenes of New England. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 5:93-104.

Tuckerman, E. 1847. A synopsis of the lichenes of the northern United States and British America. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 1:195-285.

Tuckerman, E. 1848. A synopsis of the lichenes of New England, the other northern states, and British America. George Nichols, Cambridge.

Tuckerman, E. 1872. Genera Lichenum: An arrangement of the North America lichens. Edwin Nelson, Amherst.

Tuckerman, E. and H. Willey. 1888. A synopsis of the North American lichens: Part II., comprising the Lecideacei, and (in part) the Graphidacei. E. Anthony & Sons, Printers, New Bedford, Mass.

Vainio, E. 1927. Lichenographia fennica. III. Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 57:1-138.

Walker, I. 1978. A checklist of the lichens, Fundy National Park, Alma, New Brunswick. Unpublished report, available from: Parks Canada Documentation Center, Hull, Quebec.

Weber, W. A. 1967. A synopsis of the North American species of Cyphelium. The Bryologist 70:197-203.

Wong, P. Y. and I. M. Brodo. 1990. Significant records for the lichen flora of southern Ontario, Canada. The Bryologist 93:357-367.

Zahlbruckner, A. 1922-1940. Catalogus lichenum universalis. 10 vols. Leipzig.


References

Anonymous. 1906. Offerings. The Bryologist 9:30. (Offerings to chapter members, for postage, specimens collected by a variety of individuals, including Mr. G.K. Merrill's offering of Sphaeorophorus fragilis Pers. collected on Mt. Washington, Hew Hampshire).

Barkman, J. J. 1958. Photosociology and ecology of cryptogamic epiphytes. Van Gorcum & Co., Assen.

Durfee, T. 1917. Lichens of the Mt. Monadnock region, N.H.--No. 9. The Bryologist 20:99.

Egan, R. S. 1990. Changes to the "Fifth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada". Edition II. The Bryologist 93:211-219.

Esslinger, T. L. and R. S. Egan. 1995. A sixth checklist of the lichen-forming, lichenicolous, and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. The Bryologist 98:467-549.

Farlow, W. G. 1883. Notes on the cryptogamic flora of the White Mountains. Appalachia 3:232-251.

Fink, B. 1910. The lichens of Minnesota. Contr. from the National Herbarium 14:1-269.

Fink, B. 1935. The lichen flora of the United States. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Frost, C. C. 1874. Catalogue of cryptogamous or flowerless plants of Vermont. Lichenes. Archives of Science 1:234-240;249-252.

Gowan, S. P. and I. M. Brodo. 1988. The lichens of Fundy National Park, New Brunswick, Canada. The Bryologist 91:255-325.

Harris, R. C., S. B. Selva, W. R. Buck, J. G. Guccion, J. Nelson, and C. Schmitt. 1988. Lichens of southern Maine collected on the 1987 Andrews Foray. Evansia 5:26-32.

Hyvarinen, M., P. Halonen, and M. Kauppi. 1992. Influence of stand age and structure on the epiphytic lichen vegetation in the middle-boreal forests of Finland. Lichenologist 24:165-180.

James, P. W., D. L. Hawksworth, and F. Rose. 1977. Lichen communities in the British Isles: A Preliminary conspectus. In Lichen Ecology, ed. by M. R. D. Seaward, pp. 295-413. Academic Press, New York.

Macoun, J. 1902. Catalogue of Canadian plants. Part VII. Lichenes and Hepaticae. Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa.

Merrill, G. K. 1909a. Lichen notes no. 14. Three new forms of Calicium. The Bryologist 12:107-108.

Merrill, G. K. 1909b. Lichenes Exsiccati. The Bryologist 12:112. (Announcing the availability of Fascicle No. 1 of this publication, including Calicium curtisii var. splendidula Merrill, described by Merrill, from Maine, in the previous publication).

Peck, C. H. 1895. New species of fungi. Bull. Torrey Botanical Club 22:485-493.

Riddle, L. W. 1909. Notes on some lichens from the Gaspe Peninsula. Rhodora 11:100-102.

Rose, F. 1974. The epiphytes of Oak, In the British oak: Its history and natural history, ed. by M. G. Morris and F. H. Perring, pp. 250-273. Classey, Faringdon.

Rose, F. 1976. Lichenological indicators of age and environmental continuity in woodlands, In Lichenology: Progress and problems, ed. by D. H. Brown, D. L. Hawksworth and R. H. Bailey, pp. 279-307. Academic Press, New York.

Rose, F. and P. Wolseley. 1984. Nettlecombe Park--Its history and its epiphytic lichens: An attempt at correlation. Field Studies 6:117-148.

Russell, J. L. 1851. Untitled address at the Dec. 11, 1851 evening meeting of the Essex Institute: "Mr. Russell offered some interesting remarks on the flora of the vicinity of Brattleborough, Vt., especially of the cryptogamic plants found by him on Mine Mountain". Proc. Essex Institute 1:15-16.

Santesson, R. 1984. The lichens of Sweden and Norway. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.

Schneider, A. 1898. A guide to the study of lichens. Bradlee Whidden, Boston.

Selva, S. B. 1986. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. A report prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine.

Selva, S. B. 1988a. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. The second of three annual reports prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine, the Appalachian Mountain Club, Gorham, New Hampshire, and the University of Maine at Fort Kent.

Selva, S. B. 1988b. The Caliciales of northern Maine. The Bryologist 91:2-17.

Selva, S. B. 1989. Lichens as indicators of old-growth forests. Final report prepared for the Maine Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, Topsham, Maine, the Appalachian Mountain Club, Gorham, New Hampshire, and the University of Maine at Fort Kent.

Selva, S. B. 1990. The Caliciales of Mount Carleton Provincial Park, New Brunswick. A report prepared for The New Brunswick Museum, Saint John.

Selva, S. B. 1993. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of Vermont and New Hampshire. A report prepared for the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1994a. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of northern New England and western New Brunswick. The Bryologist 97:424-429.

Selva, S. B. 1994b. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of Vermont and New Hampshire. A report prepared for the National Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1995. Lichen diversity and stand continuity in the northern hardwoods and spruce-fir forests of New Hampshire, Vermont, and the Adirondacks of New York. A report prepared for the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Durham, New Hampshire.

Selva, S. B. 1996. Using lichens to assess eclogical continuity in northeastern forests, p. 35-48. In M. B. Davis (ed.), Eastern old-growth forests. Island Press, Washington, D. C.

Smith, G. M. 1950. The freshwater algae of the United States. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Tibell, L. 1975. The Caliciales of boreal North America. Symbolae botanicae upsalienses 21:1-128.

Tibell, L. 1980. The lichen genus Chaenotheca in the northern hemisphere. Symbolae botanicae upsaliensis 23:1-65.

Tibell, L. 1984. A reappraisal of the taxonomy of Caliciales. Nova Hedwigia, Beiheft 79:597-713.

Tibell, L. 1987. Typification of names of infrageneric taxa described by Acharius and placed by him in Caliciales. Ann. Bot. Fennici 24:257-280.

Tibell, L. 1992. Crustose lichens as indicators of forest continuity in boreal coniferous forests. Nordic Journal of Botany 12:427-450.

Tuckerman, E. 1839. An enumeration of some lichens of New England, with remarks. Boston Journal of Natural History 2:245-262.

Tuckerman, E. 1840. A further enumeration of some New England lichenes. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 3:281-306.

Tuckerman, E. 1845. A further enumeration of some alpine and other lichenes of New England. Boston Jour. Nat. Hist. 5:93-104.

Tuckerman, E. 1847. A synopsis of the lichenes of the northern United States and British America. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts and Sci. 1:195-285.

Tuckerman, E. 1848. A synopsis of the lichenes of New England, the other northern states, and British America. George Nichols, Cambridge.

Tuckerman, E. 1872. Genera Lichenum: An arrangement of the North America lichens. Edwin Nelson, Amherst.

Tuckerman, E. and H. Willey. 1888. A synopsis of the North American lichens: Part II., comprising the Lecideacei, and (in part) the Graphidacei. E. Anthony & Sons, Printers, New Bedford, Mass.

Vainio, E. 1927. Lichenographia fennica. III. Acta Soc. Fauna Fl. Fenn. 57:1-138.

Walker, I. 1978. A checklist of the lichens, Fundy National Park, Alma, New Brunswick. Unpublished report, available from: Parks Canada Documentation Center, Hull, Quebec.

Weber, W. A. 1967. A synopsis of the North American species of Cyphelium. The Bryologist 70:197-203.

Wong, P. Y. and I. M. Brodo. 1990. Significant records for the lichen flora of southern Ontario, Canada. The Bryologist 93:357-367.

Zahlbruckner, A. 1922-1940. Catalogus lichenum universalis. 10 vols. Leipzig.



Tables


Table 1. Lichens of the Order Caliciales previously reported for Maine. Taxonomy follows Esslinger and Egan (1995), with synonymy according to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Santesson (1984), or Tibell (1987).


Calicium abietinum Pers.
As Calicium curtum Turn. & Borr. - Ricker & Leroy 1902

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg.
As Calicium obscurum Merrill - Merrill 1909a, 1909-1913

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
As Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turn.) Th. Fr. - Davis 1964

Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt
As Calicium subtile Fr. - Rand & Redfield 1894

Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr. - Tibell 1975

Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach. - Tibell 1975
As Acolium tigillare (Ach.) de Not. - Rand & Redfield 1894
As Trachylia tigillaris (Ach.) Fr. - Merrill 1909-1913
As Calicium tigillare - Peck 1895

Phaeocalicium curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell - Tibell 1975
As Calicium curtisii Tuck - Merrill 1909a,b, 1909-1913
var. splendidula Merrill

Phaeocalicium polyporaeum (Nyl.) Tibell - Tibell 1981

Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers. - Harvey 1894; Fink 1935; Degelius 1940
As Sphaerophorus fragilis Pers. - Howe 1913
As Sphaerophorus fragile Pers. - Riddle 1909

Sphaerophorus globosus (Hudson) Vain. - Fink 1935
As Sphaerophorus globiferus (L.) DC. - Tuckerman 1872; Rand & Redfield 1894
As Sphaerophoron globiferum (L.) DC. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848

Stenocybe major (Nyl.) Korber
As Stenocybe major Nyl. - Degelius 1940

Stenocybe minutissima (G. Merr.) Zahlbr.
As Calicium minutissimum Merrill - Merrill 1909a

Table 2. The Caliciales of Maine


*Calicium abietinum
*Calicium glaucellum
*Calicium lenticulare
*Calicium parvum
*Calicium salicinum
*Calicium trabinellum
*Chaenotheca brunneola
*Chaenotheca chlorella
*Chaenotheca chrysocephala
*Chaenotheca ferruginea
*Chaenotheca furfuracea
*Chaenotheca gracillima
*Chaenotheca hispidula
*Chaenotheca laevigata
*Chaenotheca stemonea
*Chaenotheca trichialis
*Chaenothecopsis brevipes
*Chaenothecopsis consociata
*Chaenothecopsis debilis
*Chaenothecopsis pusilla
*Chaenothecopsis pusiolla
*Chaenothecopsis rubescens
*Chaenothecopsis savonica
*Chaenothecopsis viridireagens
*Cybebe gracilenta
*Cyphelium lucidum
*Cyphelium tigillare
*Microcalicium ahlneri
*Microcalicium arenarium
*Microcalicium disseminatum
*Mycocalicium subtile
*Phaeocalicium acadiae
*Phaeocalicium betulinum
*Phaeocalicium compressulum
*Phaeocalicium curtisii
*Phaeocalicium polyporaeum
*Phaeocalicium populneum
Sphaeorophorus fragilis
Sphaerophorus globosus
*Sphinctrina tubaeformis
*Sphinctrina turbinata
*Stenocybe flexuosa
*Stenocybe major
*Stenocybe minutissimum
*Stenocybe pullatula

*Collected by Steve Selva


Table 3. The Caliciales of New Hampshire


*Calicium abietinum
Calicium adspersum
*Calicium glaucellum
*Calicium lenticulare
*Calicium parvum
Calicium quercinum
*Calicium salicinum
*Calicium trabinellum
Calicium viride
*Chaenotheca brunneola
*Chaenotheca chrysocephala
Chaenotheca cinerea
*Chaenotheca edbergii
*Chaenotheca ferruginea
*Chaenotheca furfuracea
*Chaenotheca hispidula
Chaenotheca laevigata
*Chaenotheca stemonea
*Chaenotheca trichialis
Chaenotheca xyloxena
*Chaenothecopsis consociata
*Chaenothecopsis debilis
*Chaenothecopsis pusilla
*Chaenothecopsis pusiola
*Chaenothecopsis savonica
*Chaenothecopsis viridialba
*Chaenothecopsis viridireagens
*Cyphelium lucidum
Cyphelium tigillare
*Microcalicium ahlneri
Microcalicium arenarium
*Microcalicium disseminatum
*Mycocalicium subtile
*Phaeocalicium acadiae
*Phaeocalicium betulinum
*Phaeocalicium compressulum
*Phaeocalicium curtisii
*Phaeocalicium flabelliforme
*Phaeocalicium polyporaeum
Phaeocalicium praecedens
Sclerophora nivea
Sphaerophorus fragilis
Sphaerophorus globosus
*Sphinctrina tubaeformis
*Sphinctrina turbinata
*Stenocybe flexuosa
*Stenocybe major
*Stenocybe minutissimum
*Stenocybe pullatula

*Collected by Steve Selva


Table 4. The The Caliciales of Vermont


Calicium abietinum
*Calicium lenticulare
*Calicium parvum
*Calicium salicinum
*Calicium trabinellum
Chaenotheca brunneola
*Chaenotheca chrysocephala
*Chaenotheca ferruginea
*Chaenotheca furfuracea
*Chaenotheca hispidula
Chaenotheca phaeocephala
*Chaenotheca trichialis
*Chaenothecopsis debilis
*Chaenothecopsis pusilla
*Chaenothecopsis pusiola
*Chaenothecopsis savonica
*Chaenothecopsis viridireagens
Cyphelium lucidum
Cyphelium tigillare
*Microcalicium ahlneri
*Mycocalicium subtile
*Phaeocalicium acadiae
*Phaeocalicium curtisii
*Phaeocalicium polyporaeum
*Phaeocalicium populneum
Sclerophora nivea
*Sphinctrina turbinata
*Stenocybe major
*Stenocybe minutissimum
*Stenocybe pullatula

*Collected by Steve Selva


Table 5. The The Caliciales of New Brunswick


* Calicium abietinum
*Calicium glaucellum
*Calicium lenticulare
*Calicium parvum
*Calicium salicinum
*Calicium trabinellum
Calicium viride
*Chaenotheca brachypoda
*Chaenotheca brunneola
*Chaenotheca chrysocephala
*Chaenotheca furfuracea
*Chaenotheca gracillima
*Chaenotheca hispidula
*Chaenotheca laevigata
*Chaenotheca stemonea
*Chaenotheca trichialis
*Chaenothecopsis consociata
*Chaenothecopsis debilis
*Chaenothecopsis pusilla
*Chaenothecopsis pusiola
*Chaenothecopsis savonica
*Chaenothecopsis viridireagens
*Cybebe gracilenta
*Cyphelium tigillare
*Microcalicium arenarium
*Mycocalicium subtile
*Phaeocalicium acadiae
*Phaeocalicium betulinum
*Phaeocalicium compressulum
*Phaeocalicium populneum
Sphaeorophorus globosus
*Sphinctrina turbinata
*Stenocybe flexuosa
*Stenocybe major
*Stenocybe minutissimum
*Stenocybe pullatula

*Collected by Steve Selva


Table 6. Lichens of the Order Caliciales previously reported for New Brunswick. Taxonomy follows Esslinger & Egan (1995), with synonymy according to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Santesson (1984), or Tibell (1987).


Calicium abietinum Pers. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Calicium parvum Tibell - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Calicium salicinum Pers. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Calicium viride Pers. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
As Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr.- Gowan & Brodo 1988

Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Chaenotheca stemonea (Ach.) Mull. Arg. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt - Gowan & Brodo 1988
As Calicium subtile Fr. - Macoun 1902

Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vainio
As Chaenothecopsis lignicola (Nadv.) A. Schmidt- Gowan & Brodo 1988

Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szat. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Sphaerophorus globosus (Hudson) Vainio - Gowan & Brodo 1988 Walker 1978

Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) De Not.
As Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.) de Not. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Stenocybe major (Nyl.) Korber
As Stenocybe major Korb. - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Stenocybe pullatula (Ach.) Stein - Gowan & Brodo 1988

Table 7. Lichens of the Order Caliciales previously reported for New Hampshire. Taxonomy follows Esslinger & Egan (1995), with synonymy according to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Santesson (1984), or Tibell 1987.


Calicium abietinum Pers.
As Calicium curtum Turn. & Borr. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Calicium curtum Turn. & Borr. - Tuckerman 1872

Calicium adspersum Pers.
As Calicium roscidum Floerke - Fink 1935

Calicium quercinum Pers. - Durfee 1917

Calicium salicinum Pers.
As Calicium trachelinum Ach. - Tuckerman 1845, 1872

Calicium trabinellum (Ach.) Ach.
As Calicium roscidum var. trabellinum (Nyl.) - Farlow 1883
As Calicium roscidum Floerk., Nyl. - Tuckerman 1872
var. trabinellum Nyl.

Calicium viride Pers.
As Calicium hyperellum var. baliolum Ach. - Tuckerman 1872

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg. - Tibell 1980

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr. - Tibell 1980

Chaenotheca cinerea (Pers.) Tibell - Tibell 1980

Chaenotheca ferruginea (Turner & Borrer) Mig.
As Calicium melanophaeum Ach. Tuckerman 1847, 1848
According to Tuckerman (1872), "Calicium melanophaeum, Ach., has not yet occurred here; the lichen rather doubtfully referred to an ecrustaceous state of it in Syn. Lich. N. Eng., being elsewhere referable by the spores."
Chaenotheca laevigata Nadv. - Tibell 1980

Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr. - Tibell 1980

Chaenotheca xyloxena Nadv. - Tibell 1980

Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
As Acolium viridulum (Schaer.) de Not. - Tuckerman 1872

Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
As Acolium tigillare (Pers.) de Not. - Durfee 1917

Microcalicium arenarium (Hampe ex Massal.) Tibell
As Caliciella arenaria (Hampe) Fink - Fink 1935
As Calicium citrinum (Leight.) Nyl. - Tuckerman 1872

Microcalicium disseminatum (Ach.) Vainio
As Mycocalicium disseminatum (Ach.) Fink - Fink 1935
As Calicium disseminatum Fr. - Tuckerman 1872

Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szat. - Tibell 1975
As Calicium parietinum Ach. - Durfee 1917
As Calicium subtile Pers. - Tuckerman 1845

Phaeocalicium curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell - Tibell 1975
As Calicium curtisii Tuck. - Tuckerman 1872
"What appears to be the same lichen has occurred also on alders, in the White Mountains (Mr. Willey)."
Phaeocalicium praecedens (Nyl.) A.F.W. Schmidt
As Calicium praecedens Nyl. - Tuckerman & Willey 1888

Sclerophora nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell
As Coniocybe pallida - Schneider 1898

Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers. - Fink 1935
As Sphaerophoron fragile Pers. - Tuckerman 1839
As Sphaerophoron fragile Ach. - Tuckerman 1840
As Sphaerophoron fragile Pers. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Sphaerophorus fragilis (L.) Pers. - Tuckerman 1872
As Sphaerophorus fragilis (Pers.) - Anonymous 1906
As Sphaerophorus fragile Pers. - Riddle 1909

Sphaerophorus globosus (Hudson) Vainio - Fink 1935
As Sphaerophoron globiferum (L.) DC. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Sphaerophorus globiferus (L.) DC. - Tuckerman 1872
As Sphaerophoron coralloides Pers. - Tuckerman 1839, 1840

Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) de Not.
As Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.) Fr. - Durfee 1917

Other Caliciales species recorded for New Hampshire include Calicium lenticulare Ach. (Durfee 1917) and Calicium phaeomelanum Tuck. (Tuckerman 1847). According to Santesson (1984), Calicium lenticulare Ach. has been misapplied to several Calicium species. According to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Calicium phaeomelanum Tuck., reported by Tuckerman (1847, 1848), has been placed into synonymy with Lopadium pezizoideum (Ach.) Korber.


Table 8. Lichens of the Order Caliciales previously reported for Vermont. Taxonomy follows Esslinger & Egan (1995), with synonymy according to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Santesson (1984), or Tibell (1987).


Calicium abietinum Pers.
As Calicium curtum Turn. & Borr. - Frost 1874

Calicium salicinum Pers.
As Calicium trachelinum Ach. - Frost 1874

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg.
As Calicium brunneolum Ach. - Frost 1874

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr. - Tibell 1980
As Calicium chrysocephalum Ach. - Frost 1874

Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell
As Coniocybe furfuracea (L.) Ach - Tibell 1975
As Coniocybe furfuracea Fr. - Frost 1874
As Coniocybe furfuracea - Russell 1851

Chaenotheca phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
As Calicium phoecocephalum Turn. - Frost 1874

Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
As Calicium trichiale Ach. - Frost 1874

Chaenothecopsis pusilla (Ach.) A.F.W. Schmidt
As Calicium subtile Fr. - Frost 1874

Cyphelium lucidum (Th. Fr.) Th. Fr.
As Acolium viridulum (Schaer.) de Not. - Tuckerman 1872
As Acolium viridulum de Not. - Frost 1874

Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
As Acolium tigillare de Not. - Frost 1874

Phaeocalicium curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell
As Calicium curtisii Tuck. - Frost 1874

Sclerophora nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell
As Coniocybe pallida Fr. - Frost 1874
As Coniocybe pallida - Russell 1851

Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) de Not.
As Calicium turbinatum Pers. - Frost 1874

Table 9. Lichens of the Order Caliciales previously reported for "New England" or "the mountains of New England". Taxonomy follows Esslinger & Egan (1995), with synonymy according to Zahlbruckner (1922-1940), Santesson (1984), or Tibell (1987).


Calicium abietinum Pers. - Fink 1935
As Calicium curtum Borr. & Turn. - Fink 1910

Calicium lenticulare Ach. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Calicium subquercinum Asah. - Tibell 1975
While Tibell (1975) describes Calicium lenticulare Ach. as a superfluous name, he does say that "The description by Tuckerman in his Synopsis (1847, p. 270) of Calicium lenticulare Ach. is quite good for Calicium subquercinum."
Calicium quercinum Pers. - Fink 1910

Calicium salicinum Pers.
As Calicium trachelinum Ach. - Fink 1910, 1935; Tuckerman 1847, 1848, 1872

Calicium viride Pers - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Calicium hyperellum Wahl. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848

Chaenotheca brunneola (Ach.) Mull. Arg. - Fink 1935; Tibell 1975, 1980
As Calicium brunneolum Fr. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
As Calicium brunneolum Ach. - Tuckerman 1872

Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Turner ex Ach.) Th. Fr.
As Chaenotheca chrysocephala (Ach.) Th. Fr. - Tibell 1975
As Calicium chrysocephalum (Turn.) Ach. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848, 1872

Chaenotheca furfuracea (L.) Tibell
As Coniocybe furfuracea - Schneider 1898
As Coniocybe furfuracea (L.) Ach. - Fink 1935; Tuckerman 1872

Chaenotheca phaeocephala (Turner) Th. Fr.
Calicium phaeocephala (Turn.) Th. Fr. - Fink 1910, 1935
Calicium phaeocephalum (Turn.) Turn. - Tuckerman 1872

Chaenotheca trichialis (Ach.) Th. Fr.
As Calicium trichiale Ach. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848, 1872

Chaenothecopsis pusiola (Ach.) Vainio
As Coniocybe nigricans Fr. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
It should be noted that Tuckerman (1847) admits that "It is with hesitation that I refer our plant to the European species, though it appears to agree with a specimen from Flotow."
Cyphelium sessile (Pers.) Trevisan - Fink 1935

Cyphelium tigillare (Ach.) Ach.
As Acolium tigillare (Ach.) De Not. - Tuckerman 1872
As Trachylia tigillaris Fr. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848

Mycocalicium albonigrum (Nyl.) Fink - Fink 1935

Mycocalicium subtile (Pers.) Szat.
As Calicium subtile Pers., Fr. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848
Calicium subtile Fr. - Tuckerman 1872

Phaeocalicium curtisii (Tuck.) Tibell
As Calicium curtisii Tuck. - Fink 1935
Fink (1935) also states that C. curtisii var. splendidula is a synonym.
Sclerophora nivea (Hoffm.) Tibell
As Coniocybe pallida (Pers.) Fr. - Fink 1910, 1935; Tuckerman 1872

As Coniocybe pallida - Schneider 1898

Sphinctrina anglica Nyl.
As Mycocalicium microcephalum (J.E. Smith) Fink - Fink 1935

Sphinctrina turbinata (Pers.: Fr.) De Not.
As Calicium turbinatum Pers. - Tuckerman 1847, 1848

Other Caliciales species recorded for "New England" include Calicium lenticulare (Hoffm.) Fr. (Fink 1935) and Calicium lenticulare (Hoffm.) Ach. (Tuckerman 1872), the current status of which are unclear.




Last Updated November 2, 2004
For more information contact sselva@maine.edu
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